Category Archives: Publications

Matter-wave interferometers using TAAP rings

New Journal of Physics   18   075014 (2016)

P. Navez, S. Pandey, H. Mas, K. Poulios, T. Fernholz, and W. von Klitzing

doi: 10.1088/1367-2630/18/7/075014

Fig 2

Figure 2. Experimental realisation of a ring-shaped TAAP waveguide (s = 0, d = 0) with rubidium atoms in the ∣2, +2ñ state. The quadrupole gradient is a = 50 G cm−1 with wrf 2p = 2.62 MHz. The measured Rabi frequency is Wrf 2p = 215 kHz. The radius of the ring is R = 570 μm.

Abstract: We present two novel matter-wave Sagnac interferometers based on ring-shaped time-averaged adiabatic potentials, where the atoms are put into a superposition of two different spin states and manipulated independently using elliptically polarized rf-fields. In the first interferometer the atoms are accelerated by spin-state-dependent forces and then travel around the ring in a matter-wave guide. In the second one the atoms are

Figure 6.

Figure 6. Experimental realisation of arbitrary traps with (s 1 0, d 1 0) for the two states ∣2, +2ñ (5 × 105 atoms) and ∣1, -1ñ (3 × 105 atoms) at wrf 2p = 2.62 MHz . The fitted radius is 440 μm and 450 μm respectively. The quadrupole gradient is
a = 55 G cm−1. Note that (a) and (b) are taken with identical experimental conditions and differ only in the state of the atoms. The axis of the circular rf component and the one of the tilted modulation are not orthogonal.

fully trapped during the entire interferometric sequence and are moved around the ring in two spin-state-dep
endent `buckets’. Corrections to the ideal Sagnac phase are investigated for both cases. We experimentally demonstrate the key atom-optical elements of the interferometer such as the independent manipulation of two different spin states in the ring-shaped potentials under identical experimental conditions.

Towards rotation sensing with a single atomic clock

Proc. SPIE   9900   990007-990007-14 (2016)

T. Fernholz, R. Stevenson, M. R. Hush, I. V. Lesanovsky, T. Bishop, F. Gentile, S. Jammi, T. Pyragius, M. G. Bason, H. Mas, S. Pandey, G. Vasilakis, K. Poulios, and W. von Klitzing

http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2229878

We discuss a scheme to implement a gyroscopic atom sensor with magnetically trapped ultra-cold atoms. Unlike standard light or matter wave Sagnac interferometers no free wave propagation is used. Interferometer operation is controlled only with static, radio-frequency and microwave magnetic fields, which removes the need for interferometric stability of optical laser beams. Due to the confinement of atoms, the scheme may allow the construction of small scale portable sensors. We discuss the main elements of the scheme and report on recent results and efforts towards its experimental realization.

One of the possibilities discussed are state dependent TAAPs:

fernholz2016ps-rotating-rings

fernholz2016ps-ring-trap

However also chip scale solutions are discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

Adiabatic Potentials and Atom Lasers

Rom. Rep. Phys. 67 295 (2015). (link) (pdf)

V. Bolpasi and W. von Klitzing

Abstract: 
The brightest atom lasers to date are formed by time-dependent adiabatic potentials from magnetic Ioffe-Pritchard traps. We analyse these potentials based on a harmonic trap in the presence of gravity. We present a detailed analytic model of the trap and determine the flux of the atom laser, which we find to be in good agreement with recent experimental data. We also present a novel method for determining the Rabi frequency of the dressing rf-field.

Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

Experimental Astronomy 39:2 167-206 (2015) (link) (local link) (arXive)
Thilo Schuldt et al.Abstract:
Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth’s gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species 85Rb/87Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto- optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry, the detection unit, the vascuum system for 10-11 mbar ultra-high vacuum generation, and the high-suppression factor magnetic shielding as well as the thermal control system. The laser system is based on a hybrid approach using fiber-based telecom components and high-power laser diode technology and includes all laser sources for 2D-MOT, 3D-MOT, ODT, interferometry and detection. Manipulation and switching of the laser beams is carried out on an optical bench using Zerodur bonding technology. The instrument consists of 9 units with an overall mass of 221 kg, an average power consumption of 608 W (819 W peak), and a volume of 470 liters which would well fit on a satellite to be launched with a Soyuz rocket, as system studies have shown.

An ultra-bright atom laser

The article has selected the article as a New Journal of Physics Highlight of the year 2014.

Phys.org has published a nice semi-popular article about the paper. The New Scientist has also written a rather popularized article about our atom laser.
Note that we have not been given access to any of these articles before publication and are not responsible for its rather imaginative content.

   

An article in Greek can be found in a number of newspapers, e.g. at Kerdos.gr and in.gr
Article at Kerdos and  Article at In.gr

Sigma Live also have made a video interview in Greek about the atom laser.

Fundamentals of cavity-enhanced polarimetry for parity-nonconserving optical rotation measurements: Application to Xe, Hg, and I

Physical Review A   89   052127 (2014)

L. Bougas, G. E. Katsoprinakis, W. von Klitzing, and T. Rakitzis

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.89.052127   or   https://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.89.052127

Abstract: We present the theoretical basis of a cavity-enhanced polarimetric scheme for the measurement of parity-nonconserving (PNC) optical rotation. We discuss the possibility of detecting PNC optical rotation in accessible transitions in metastable Xe and Hg, and ground state I. In particular, the physics of the PNC optical rotation is presented, and we explore the lineshape effects on the expected PNC optical rotation signals. Furthermore, we present an analysis of the eigenpolarizations of the cavity-enhanced polarimeter, which is necessary for understanding the measurement procedure and the ability of employing robust background subtraction procedures using two novel signal reversals. Using recent atomic structure theoretical calculations, we present simulations of the PNC optical rotation signals for all proposed transitions, assuming a range of experimentally feasible parameters. Finally, the possibility of performing sensitive measurements of the nuclear-spin-dependent PNC effects is investigated, for the odd-neutron nuclei 129Xe and 199Hg, and the odd-proton nucleus 127I.

 

 Cavity frequency polarization spectrum. For the simulations we used θF =13 mad and δ = θF/2 = 6.5 mad and for demonstration purposes φPNC = 0.6 mad. (i) The Faraday effect splits the cavity spectrum into R and L modes by 2ωF = 2θF(c/L) (twofold degeneracy); (ii) the PNC optical rotation splits further the clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) modes by 2ωPNC = 2φPNC(c/L), while the cavity modes remain circular polarization states; (iii) in the presence of linear birefringence (δ ̸= 0) the frequency splitting of the eigenmodes increases as ωF′ = 1/qωF and the measured PNC- induced splitting is reduced ωF′ = qωF (0 ≤ q ≤ 1) (see Fig. 3); the eigenmodes transform into elliptical states as observed from the different amplitudes of the output light (see the text for discussion). We also assume that the clockwise input beam was p polarized, while the counterclockwise beam was s polarized. The cavity’s linewidth is exaggerated for demonstration purposes; note that the free spectral range of the cavity is ωFSR = 2π × 40 MHz. In (i)–(iii), the gray dashed line corresponds to the fourfold degenerate axial mode of an isotropic cavity. PBS stands for polarizing beam splitter and BS stands for beam splitter.

Cavity frequency polarization spectrum. For the simulations we used θF =13 mad and δ = θF/2 = 6.5 mad and for demonstration purposes φPNC = 0.6 mad. (i) The Faraday effect splits the cavity spectrum into R and L modes by 2ωF = 2θF(c/L) (twofold degeneracy); (ii) the PNC optical rotation splits further the clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) modes by 2ωPNC = 2φPNC(c/L), while the cavity modes remain circular polarization states; (iii) in the presence of linear birefringence (δ ̸= 0) the frequency splitting of the eigenmodes increases as ωF′ = 1/qωF and the measured PNC- induced splitting is reduced ωF′ = qωF (0 ≤ q ≤ 1) (see Fig. 3); the eigenmodes transform into elliptical states as observed from the different amplitudes of the output light (see the text for discussion). We also assume that the clockwise input beam was p polarized, while the counterclockwise beam was s polarized. The cavity’s linewidth is exaggerated for demonstration purposes; note that the free spectral range of the cavity is ωFSR = 2π × 40 MHz. In (i)–(iii), the gray dashed line corresponds to the fourfold degenerate axial mode of an isotropic cavity. PBS stands for polarizing beam splitter and BS stands for beam splitter.

STE-QUEST-test of the universality of free fall using cold atom interferometry

Classical And Quantum Gravity   31   115010 (2014)

D. N. Aguilera et al.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/31/11/115010

Abstract: The theory of general relativity describes macroscopic phenomena driven by the influence of gravity while quantum mechanics brilliantly accounts for microscopic effects. Despite their tremendous individual success, a complete unification of fundamental interactions is missing and remains one of the most challenging and important quests in modern theoretical physics. The spacetime explorer and quantum equivalence principle space test satellite mission, proposed as a medium-size mission within the Cosmic Vision program of the European Space Agency (ESA), aims for testing general relativity with high precision in two experiments by performing a measurement of the gravitational redshift of the Sun and the Moon by comparing terrestrial clocks, and by performing a test of the universality of free fall of matter waves in the gravitational field of Earth comparing the trajectory of two Bose–Einstein condensates of 85 Rb and 87 Rb. The two ultracold atom clouds are monitored very precisely thanks to techniques of atom interferometry. This allows to reach down to an uncertainty in the Eötvös parameter of at least 2 × 10 −15 . In this paper, we report about the results of the phase A mission study of the atom interferometer instrument covering the description of the main payload elements, the atomic source concept, and the systematic error sources

Accelerating and abruptly autofocusing matter waves

Physical Review A   87   043637 (2013)

N. K. Efremidis, V. Paltoglou, and W. von Klitzing

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.87.043637

Abstract: We predict that classes of coherent matter waves can self-accelerate without the presence of an external potential. Such Bose-Einstein condensates can follow arbitrary power-law trajectories and can also take the form of diffraction-free Airy waves. We also show that suitably engineered radially symmetric matter waves can abruptly autofocus in space and time. We suggest different schemes for the preparation of the condensate using laser beams to imprint an amplitude or a phase pattern onto the matter wave. Direct and Fourier space generation of such waves is discussed using continuous and binary masks as well as magnetic mirrors and lenses. We study the effect of interactions and find that independently of the type and strength of the nonlinearity, the dynamics are associated with the generation of accelerating matter waves. In the case of strong attractive interactions, the acceleration is increased while the radiation reorganizes itself in the form of soliton(s).

A simple and highly reliable laser system for cold atom experiments

Optics Communications 290 110-114 (2013)
D. Sahagun, V. Bolpasi, and W. von Klitzing
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2012.10.013 (local link)

Abstract:

The increasing complexity of cold atom experiments puts ever higher demands on the stability and reliability of its components. We present a laser system for atom cooling experiments, which is extremely reliable yet simple to construct and low-cost, thus forming an ideal basis for ultracold atom experiments such as Bose-Einstein condensation and degenerate Fermi gases. The extended cavity (master) diode and slave lasers remain locked over a period of months with a drift in absolute frequency well below 1MHz with a line-width of less than 300kHz. We generate the repumper light by modulating the current of an injection locked slave laser at a frequency of 6.6GHz. The construction of the laser is simple and largely based on off-the-shelf electronic and optomechanical components.

Design

The basic idea of this laser system is to keep the individual elements modular, so that a fault in one part of the system can be repaired by only changing the sub-system with zero changes elsewhere.  Each parts in the graph on the right thus represents a separate bread-board.
The article also describes a very simple diode laser with extraordinary long term stability (depicted here on the right). This master-laser uses simply to machine parts and a commercial mirror mount for holding the grating.  The diode holder and mirror mount are screwed onto an aluminium base plate, which is glued onto a Peltier element, which in turn is glued onto a base.  The whole assembly is then surrounded by thick-walled aluminium box, which has been lined with standard isolation foam.

Another key element are the distribution and AOM breadboards.  They consist of standard 40mm kitchen-top granite plates cut to 300x600mm.  The optical mounts are 1” aluminium posts which are glued onto the base plate using cyanoacrylate adhesive (Loctite 408).  The beam hight is 50mm.

Supplementary Material:

– Layout of the AOM board (including alignment procedure) (link)
– Layout of the distribution board (including alignment procedure) (link)
– Electronics Diagramms (link)
– Technical drawings of the master laser (link)
– Technical drawings of the slave laser (link)

A gradient and offset compensated Ioffe–Pritchard trap for Bose–Einstein condensation experiments

Journal of Physics B   45   235301 (2012)

V. Bolpasi, J. Grucker, M. J. Morrissey, and W. von Klitzing

http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-4075/45/23/235301   or   http://dx.doi.org.sci-hub.cc/10.1088/0953-4075/45/23/235301

bolpasi2012jpb-highlightAbstract: The Ioffe–Pritchard trap is the workhorse of modern cold atom physics. Here, we present a novel Ioffe–Pritchard trap coil configuration based purely on circular coils. By eliminating the traditional Ioffe bars one can increase the gradient and thus the radial trapping frequency by almost a factor 2. We also present a method to achieve minimal coupling between the gradient, curvature and offset fields of the trap, thus facilitating the dynamic control of the trapping frequencies and aspect ratio.

This paper was selected by the editors as one of the highlights of 2012 of Journal of Optics B.